String in Rust

Recently, I’m working on TiKV, a distributed KV database based on Rust. I found that encode/decode is an important issue when resolving stuff related to string. Here are some notes about str and String in Rust.

Data Representation

As we all know, all data is stored as 0/1 for a bit in either memory or disk. To represent numbers, it can be transferred into binary format plus some mechanism called twos-complement notation. But wait, how can we know some bits like 01100001 represented ‘a’. Communities have tried to come into a contract which is a bijection between one or more bytes(even arbitrary bits) and characters. Then ASCII comes out. But it only resolve the English characters. Other languages like Chinese and Japanese also have this issue. Then Unicode was invented to represent all possible characters on the earth. In a word,

All characters are stored as bytes in memory, whatever how they encoded.

strings in Rust

Anyone who learns Rust even just for five minutes knows that there are two ‘strings’ in Rust, str and String. It may confused a lot of new comers, included me. But it exactly reflects how subtle the Rust’s memory management is. Let’s dive into them.


str, also called string slice, which is a sequence of valid UTF-8 bytes. You can imagine it like an array of bytes, but not one byte for on character, since it’s UTF-8 encoded. str is not useful in Rust. But &str is spreaded in Rust code. There are two types of &str, &'static str and &'a str. The first one can be determined when compiling. So it can be stored in the program and loaded when used. The later one can only be determined on runtime, and is dynamic sized. So actually &'a str is a pointer to a DST and some usable runtime information.

String is exactly what we usually think the way String implemented in languages. Actually it’s just a vector of u8, heap allocated, which can be expanded automatically. You can also find the implementation of String here.

The rust way

Since we have the two options of strings. What’s the best choice of the two options when writing code?

In function

I do think &str is preferred when the string will not be modified in place. For example, there are no operations like replace some characters in it with others. Besides, &str is preferred when defining functions, since there are ways to convert String to &str.

Deref coercion

Rust doc points out a way to convert String to &str. You can imagine & as a special operator here. It accepts a String as an argument and then generates a &str with the same content.

Into conversion

By Deref coercion, we still need to explicitly call & on a String. Is there any way we can define a function that accepts both &str or String.

Of course. trait will help you. If Into<U> for T is implemented, it means that there is a function into for T to be converted into U. Here is an example function that accepts both String and &str, since Into<String> for &'a str is implemented by From<'a str> for String.

fn print_name<S: Into<String>>(name: S) {
  println!("My name is {}", name.into());

But here comes other two issues.

But of course, it simplify the interface of functions.

In struct

There are also two options for a string in a struct. I’m also not sure which is better. It will be depended on the situation.

Ivan Yang 21 October 2016
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